How does UDP work?

UDP is the main topic of your article. We will take deep into its purpose and how it functions, and we will look at the relationship of UDP with DNS. So, it sounds interesting to you, let’s start!

Definition of UDP

The abbreviation UDP stands for User Datagram Protocol. It’s a well-known communications protocol that offers a fast solution. We use it to connect diverse Internet services with low latency and loss tolerance.

The User Datagram Protocol allows data to be transferred before the recipient agrees, which speeds up the communication process. Consequently, User Datagram Protocol is the preferred method for time-sensitive communications such as DNS lookups, Voice over IP (VoIP), video, or audio transfers.

How does it operate?

UDP splits each message into several datagrams and sends them over the network via routers, switches, and security gateways until they reach their destination host or server.

Each datagram has a header with accurate port numbers to distinguish the users’ queries. It also gives you the option of using a checksum to ensure that the data transfer is complete. This is necessary because the User Datagram Protocol divides the messages but does not reassemble them or number them.

The fact that User Datagram Protocol allows for high-speed communication is its most appealing feature. Because it is a connectionless protocol, this is the case. It increases the transfer speed, but packets may be dropped, and a DDoS attack may ensue.

UDP & DNS

DNS employs a large set of technologies and protocols. One of them is UDP, which is essential for Domain Name System because:

  • DNS favors UDP’s quickness. DNS may reply more faster than other protocols because it does not require a connection and does not require a handshake.
  • UDP does not require consistent data to function. Valid data that follows specified or defined rules. This entails dangers, as well as agility and, once again, speed. DNS must, without a doubt, provide consistency, which it accomplishes through the use of other protocols.
  • Alternative protocols and approaches can be used to compensate for UDP’s lack of security. DNS can make the most of UDP while reducing hazards.
  • DNS can optimize its job by exclusively using UDP to send smaller data packets. The maximum amount of data that can be sent through UDP is 512 bytes. A different protocol will be utilized if there are larger packets to send. Because DNS requests are usually tiny data packets, it’s quite convenient for the DNS resolution process. They’re significant segments for UDP to transfer quickly.

Conclusion

To sum up, UDP is a messaging protocol that allows networks and devices to interact rapidly and efficiently. It might be the best option for you. Your wants and needs, as well as the network’s requirements, determine when it is more or less appropriate.

GeoDNS: Definition & Details

GeoDNS is an absolutely helpful service that you could benefit from. In this article, we will take a deep look at its main purpose, how it functions and why it is so advantageous. Let’s start!

GeoDNS – Definition

The GeoDNS stands for Geographical Domain Name System and is an effective traffic distribution method. It works by responding to requests based on their location. It’s also called a traffic director or a global traffic director.

GeoDNS is an excellent solution for load balancing and optimizing traffic to domains. As a result, problems are decreased, and networks are strengthened due to their utilization.

Large volumes of traffic necessitate large-scale solutions. If you operate a global company, GeoDNS is a must-have. It will provide you with all of the essential name servers in strategic locations across the world to meet your needs and markets.

How does it work?

GeoDNS operates in a unique way. How? First, users’ requests are routed through DNS servers when they visit your site. You’ll be using many DNS servers all across the world if you utilize GeoDNS. The DNS service provider you select determines this. That is, these servers will look up each user’s IP address in their database and match it to the data they have on file for that IP address. Following that, the traffic is routed to a predetermined IP address, which is usually the one closest to the query’s origin.

Why is GeoDNS beneficial?

  • It’s simple to use. It’s easy to set up, and everything will work independently after that. All you’ll need is a basic understanding of DNS.
  • Reroute your traffic. To create a complete CDN, use GeoDNS. You can host your site on multiple web hosting servers and use GeoDNS to automatically direct users to the most recent version of your site. That trick will also serve as a load balancer, making your network run more smoothly.
  • Monitor the DNS. One of the most important advantages is that it can keep track of your DNS. It could also be configured to block IP addresses on your denylist. Complications will be avoided as a result.
  • Control geo-restrictions. You can set geo-restrictions based on your users’ IP addresses (location). You can specify which groups have access to what content and where they should be directed. It will be a very useful tool if you manage intellectual property items such as videos, music, pictures, and so on.

Where can you find GeoDNS?

GeoDNS is the most common paid service. To take use of it, you’ll need to choose a reputable DNS Hosting company. GeoDNS Start, ClouDNS, easyDNS, and others are among the best. You could lose a lot of money if you choose the wrong DNS provider. Take note of their offerings and see if they give a free trial. Before acquiring this service, you should carefully select the DNS hosting provider. Make well-thought-out decisions.

Conclusion

In closing, the GeoDNS could be really advantageous for you and your online business. Why? Because it provides you speed, monitors the traffic, and could manage geo-restriction. It makes the user’s whole experience more pleasant. And it is crucial to increasing profits and achieving success!

DNS cache – What is it?

DNS cache – Definition

The DNS cache represents a cache memory for storing DNS data (DNS records) for particular domain names only for a short amount of time. This type of memory mechanism could be found in various devices, machines, smartphones, computers, DNS recursive servers, and more.

There is one main purpose which DNS cache aims at, that is simply not to repeat the long and time-consuming DNS lookup each type a precise domain name is requested.

For instance, you type domain.net in your address bar, and a DNS lookup is triggered by your request to search for its IP address. Then the DNS recursive server finds the needed IP address, and you are able to explore domain.net. All of the DNS records are going to be stored in the DNS cache. So, next time you want to visit domain.net, it is going to load a lot faster because the needed data is going to be in the DNS cache. 

We should mention that the IP address and the DNS data are going to be available in the DNS cache only for a particular amount of time. That amount depends on the TTL (time-to-live) value which is set by the DNS administrator.

Thanks to this caching mechanism, users receive faster answers to their DNS queries which also helps with optimizing the overall resources.

How to clear your DNS cache? 

If you want to clear the DNS cache, you could do it in one of several ways. Here is how to complete this task depending on your browser and your operating system (OS). 

macOS

If you are a macOS user, you should start by opening the Terminal app. Then you just need to type the following command:

sudo killall -HUP mDNSResponder

After that, you should type your password and press Enter. That’s it!

Linux (Ubuntu 20.04 LTS)

In case you are a Linux user, then you also should open the Terminal app. Next, type the following command:  

sudo systemd-resolve –flush-caches

After that, you should type your sudo password and press Enter. That’s it!

Windows

If you are a Windows user, then you should open the Command Prompt or Windows PowerShell. After that, type the following command:

ipconfig /flushdns

Lastly, you should see a confirmation message. That’s it!

Google Chrome/Edge/Opera

Inside your address bar, copy and paste the following line:

chrome://net-internals/#dns

Press Enter, and on the page, you should search for “Host resolver cache” and click on “Clear host cache.”

You are ready!

Safari 

Go to “Preferences” and then click on “Advanced.” Then, search for “Show develop menu” in the menu bar.

After that, search for “Develop” and then click on “Empty Caches.”

The last step is to restart your browser. 

Ready! 

Why should you care?

Based on the fact that DNS cache is really helpful, cybercriminals managed to find a way and take advantage of it. They perform an attack called DNS poisoning (DNS spoofing) and insert fake data (IP addresses and domain names). Such type of fraudulent DNS data (DNS records) directs users to a website that is similar to the original one, yet it is under the control of the criminal. Therefore, it is important to know that flushing the DNS cache regularly could prevent such malicious threats. 

Why should you implement Dynamic DNS?

Many of you came to this article because you want to make available a particular service from your home or office on the Internet. Dynamic DNS will serve you this purpose! It is easy to implement, and it will save you money, and it could even be free if you don’t require a lot of resources. Do you want to learn more? 

What is Dynamic DNS?

Dynamic DNS (DDNS) is a DNS service that allows you to create a hostname for a device and link it to its IP address. It is a simple A or AAAA record so far. The Dynamic part comes from the fact that you can set up your router to report changes in this device’s IP address and send an update message to the DNS server where the link was made. There the hostname’s IP address will be updated. It is a way to automatically update the IP address of a device and provide availability with the need of human effort. You can set up the Dynamic DNS and be sure that the service you are running will be available. 

If you are not using this DNS service and want to use a device to provide a service, you could have the following problem. The Internet Service Provider (ISP) that you are using will eventually update your IP address using a dynamic method like DHCP. As a result, you will get a new IP address, and all the clients need to get it to reconnect. Unfortunately, if you are not near the device, you might not know the new IP address and experience long downtime. 

You can also pay for a static IP address and provide service from your device without worrying that the IP address will change. In this case, there are two problems. First, it cost more than a Dynamic DNS. Second, if your IP address is always the same, hackers could easily target your device. They will know it and try everything to exploit it in different ways. Not a good scenario. What do you think?

Why should you implement Dynamic DNS?

The main reason is very simple – Dynamic DNS is the cheaper option to make something available online. Yes, you can get static IP addresses for each of the connected devices that you want available, but how much will this cost? The IPv4 addresses are getting very scarce and quite expensive. So, if you are wondering, even if you pay for a DNS service plan, it will still be a lot cheaper than paying for static IP addresses. 

The second important point is that it is relatively easy to use. Setting up Dynamic DNS is like setting anything on your router. You go to the setting and input what is needed. On the other side – the DNS, it is also very quick and straightforward to create an account on a DNS site, and later, create a new host. 

So, basically, Dynamic DNS is an economical and easy-to-use alternative to the paid static IP addresses. 

Conclusion

You have just learned what is Dynamic DNS and what are its most important advantages, compared to static IP addresses for your host. Should you use it? In most cases, using it will save you money and will work fine, so definitely consider it. The only concern is that the Dynamic DNS is only good as the DNS provider. If you can’t afford downtime, think well, which DNS provider you should choose. 

DNS propagation – Get familiar with the process

DNS propagation – What is it?

DNS propagation is a complex process involving the update and spread of new modified information across the network of servers. Whenever you make a change in your DNS, for instance, create a new DNS record or edit an existing one, it is going to be saved in the authoritative DNS name server. 

However, the network contains numerous DNS servers, such as the recursive ones, which are spread in different geographical places all over the world. Therefore, each server on the network has to receive the updated changes to function correctly in the process of DNS resolution. 

The time required for distributing the changes to all of the different recursive servers is the DNS propagation.

How does it work?

DNS changes and modifications are needed in various situations. For example, you may want to migrate to a different hosting provider or renovate your website, or maybe you want to add a brand new service (email, FTP). These are just some of the various actions that would demand making adjustments, adding, and removing DNS data (DNS records).

Your DNS administrator or yourself is going to complete these tasks straight to the authoritative DNS server. Then when everything is set up there, the process of updating and spreading through the network has to begin. Each DNS server on the globe has to obtain a duplicate of the new DNS information.

That is why it should not shock you if some of your users receive the new version of your website and others who are located in a separate country get the previous version. However, as we mentioned, DNS propagation is a process, and it needs time to propagate completely to all of the DNS servers.

What affects longer DNS propagation?

DNS propagation could take a long period of time. So, that depends on several factors:

  • The TTL values of the DNS records. The various DNS data has limited time established, determining how long servers should store the DNS records. So, the servers are not going to seek the DNS data until the TTL expires.
  • The TTL values from ISP’s servers. Internet service providers (ISP) configure their DNS in their own way. Typically, their TTL values are higher to optimize the usage of the resources and store the DNS records of the domains for faster response to DNS queries. For that reason, their TTLs should expire, and then your new DNS modifications are going to propagate. 
  • The devices’ DNS cache. The computers of your users also have a DNS cache, which stores the DNS records of the domains they visit. So, until the TTL expires, some users could receive the older version of your website. They could delete their DNS cache or wait for the TTL to expire to reach the updated version of your website.
  • DNS changes in the highest hierarchy level. You probably know that the DNS servers have a hierarchical structure. For that reason, when changes are completed on the root servers, the DNS propagation is going to take more time. At that level, the TTL values are usually higher.