How does UDP work?

UDP is the main topic of your article. We will take deep into its purpose and how it functions, and we will look at the relationship of UDP with DNS. So, it sounds interesting to you, let’s start!

Definition of UDP

The abbreviation UDP stands for User Datagram Protocol. It’s a well-known communications protocol that offers a fast solution. We use it to connect diverse Internet services with low latency and loss tolerance.

The User Datagram Protocol allows data to be transferred before the recipient agrees, which speeds up the communication process. Consequently, User Datagram Protocol is the preferred method for time-sensitive communications such as DNS lookups, Voice over IP (VoIP), video, or audio transfers.

How does it operate?

UDP splits each message into several datagrams and sends them over the network via routers, switches, and security gateways until they reach their destination host or server.

Each datagram has a header with accurate port numbers to distinguish the users’ queries. It also gives you the option of using a checksum to ensure that the data transfer is complete. This is necessary because the User Datagram Protocol divides the messages but does not reassemble them or number them.

The fact that User Datagram Protocol allows for high-speed communication is its most appealing feature. Because it is a connectionless protocol, this is the case. It increases the transfer speed, but packets may be dropped, and a DDoS attack may ensue.

UDP & DNS

DNS employs a large set of technologies and protocols. One of them is UDP, which is essential for Domain Name System because:

  • DNS favors UDP’s quickness. DNS may reply more faster than other protocols because it does not require a connection and does not require a handshake.
  • UDP does not require consistent data to function. Valid data that follows specified or defined rules. This entails dangers, as well as agility and, once again, speed. DNS must, without a doubt, provide consistency, which it accomplishes through the use of other protocols.
  • Alternative protocols and approaches can be used to compensate for UDP’s lack of security. DNS can make the most of UDP while reducing hazards.
  • DNS can optimize its job by exclusively using UDP to send smaller data packets. The maximum amount of data that can be sent through UDP is 512 bytes. A different protocol will be utilized if there are larger packets to send. Because DNS requests are usually tiny data packets, it’s quite convenient for the DNS resolution process. They’re significant segments for UDP to transfer quickly.

Conclusion

To sum up, UDP is a messaging protocol that allows networks and devices to interact rapidly and efficiently. It might be the best option for you. Your wants and needs, as well as the network’s requirements, determine when it is more or less appropriate.

GeoDNS: Definition & Details

GeoDNS is an absolutely helpful service that you could benefit from. In this article, we will take a deep look at its main purpose, how it functions and why it is so advantageous. Let’s start!

GeoDNS – Definition

The GeoDNS stands for Geographical Domain Name System and is an effective traffic distribution method. It works by responding to requests based on their location. It’s also called a traffic director or a global traffic director.

GeoDNS is an excellent solution for load balancing and optimizing traffic to domains. As a result, problems are decreased, and networks are strengthened due to their utilization.

Large volumes of traffic necessitate large-scale solutions. If you operate a global company, GeoDNS is a must-have. It will provide you with all of the essential name servers in strategic locations across the world to meet your needs and markets.

How does it work?

GeoDNS operates in a unique way. How? First, users’ requests are routed through DNS servers when they visit your site. You’ll be using many DNS servers all across the world if you utilize GeoDNS. The DNS service provider you select determines this. That is, these servers will look up each user’s IP address in their database and match it to the data they have on file for that IP address. Following that, the traffic is routed to a predetermined IP address, which is usually the one closest to the query’s origin.

Why is GeoDNS beneficial?

  • It’s simple to use. It’s easy to set up, and everything will work independently after that. All you’ll need is a basic understanding of DNS.
  • Reroute your traffic. To create a complete CDN, use GeoDNS. You can host your site on multiple web hosting servers and use GeoDNS to automatically direct users to the most recent version of your site. That trick will also serve as a load balancer, making your network run more smoothly.
  • Monitor the DNS. One of the most important advantages is that it can keep track of your DNS. It could also be configured to block IP addresses on your denylist. Complications will be avoided as a result.
  • Control geo-restrictions. You can set geo-restrictions based on your users’ IP addresses (location). You can specify which groups have access to what content and where they should be directed. It will be a very useful tool if you manage intellectual property items such as videos, music, pictures, and so on.

Where can you find GeoDNS?

GeoDNS is the most common paid service. To take use of it, you’ll need to choose a reputable DNS Hosting company. GeoDNS Start, ClouDNS, easyDNS, and others are among the best. You could lose a lot of money if you choose the wrong DNS provider. Take note of their offerings and see if they give a free trial. Before acquiring this service, you should carefully select the DNS hosting provider. Make well-thought-out decisions.

Conclusion

In closing, the GeoDNS could be really advantageous for you and your online business. Why? Because it provides you speed, monitors the traffic, and could manage geo-restriction. It makes the user’s whole experience more pleasant. And it is crucial to increasing profits and achieving success!

CDN explained for beginners

What is CDN?

CDN is the short acronym for Content Delivery Network, and it represents a large network of servers that are spread across different geographical locations. The main purpose of these servers is to cover a territory well and provide fast answers to the requests of potential users. All of the servers store the needed information, like images, video, code, in their cache memory. Additionally, they aim to be as close as possible to the users. As a result, the service is way more improved and quicker. Moreover, an extra positive effect of the CDN is load balancing. It improves the performance and reduces the load on the primary server.

How does it work?

The idea behind CDN is actually pretty simple. There are DNS recursive servers that examine from where the DNS request is actually coming. Afterward, they provide to the user the IP address of the server, which is located as close as possible. Oftentimes some service providers call these cache servers delivery nodes.

As we mentioned, the DNS servers are placed in very strategic locations. You are able to choose as many as you need and set even more in regions that are important. However, that depends on your DNS provider.

Compared to Anycast DNS, where the network of DNS servers holds an identical IP address, in the case of CDN is commonly used a GeoDNS service, also known as Traffic Director. This service allows you to use separate IP addresses for different locations. 

Thanks to that, all of your traffic won’t overwhelm the very same source. Additionally, you can set a second web hosting in the crucial locations. The servers are going to store the data in their cache memory, and you can set their IP addresses for the closest DNS server. The DNS request is going to receive a fast answer from the available and near cache server.

How to build your CDN?

You can create your CDN by having the following things:

  • Domain name/subdomain
  • Minimum of two servers in different locations. They could be dedicated or virtual.
  • GeoDNS tool for directing the users’ requests to the nearest server.

Advantages of CDN

It improves the loading time and minimizes latency. – That is possible due to having a server with the cached data nearby the users who initiate the requests. That allows the transfer and the loading process of images, videos, HTML pages, and other items to be extremely fast. The speedup of the loading time positively affects the user experience and SEO.

CDN improves your availability and redundancy. – The extensive CDN network with servers storing the data is extremely beneficial. In situations when a particular server is down, your website and content are still going to be available for your visitors. 

It improves security. – Extensive networks effectively spread malicious traffic when a DDoS attack is initiated towards your website, for instance. In addition, you can implement a DDoS protection service offered by some of the DNS hosting providers. 

Less bandwidth – The cached data allows your primary server not to deliver constantly identical content over and over again. Thanks to that, the amount of data transferred from your website’s host server is minimized.

SaaS, PaaS, IaaS – Everything you need to know

SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS are the primary three types of cloud computing as-a-service choices. Every one of them covers a different level of management for you. So, let’s explain a little bit more about SaaS, PaaS, IaaS, and cloud computing and how you can use them to build an environment that satisfies all of your needs.

Cloud computing – definition

Cloud computing is an on-demand supply of various computing services or resources through the Internet in exchange for a defined fee. That way, you can get all the things you need, such as data centers, servers, storage, databases, software, security, really quickly and without the necessity to actually own them.

For sure, cloud computing entirely changed the model of receiving these services. It lowers the operation costs of many customers because they are not required to purchase and maintain data centers and numerous services. 

SaaS

SaaS stands for software as a service additionally called cloud application services. It provides a complete application that is managed by a provider via a web browser. The customer receives software that is ready to use. As a customer, you are not able to make any modifications to the particular software, and you receive the features which are included in the specific plan you chose.

On the other hand, the provider of SaaS has the responsibility for networking, storage, servers, virtualization, OS, middleware, runtime, data, and app. In addition, it is responsible for taking care of and maintaining errors, bug fixing, software updates, and generating new features.

  • Advantages: It is very easy to start implementing it and also to use it. Additionally, you are not required to maintain any of the services.
  • Disadvantages: You don’t have any control over the software and the development. Additionally, these services are vendor lock-in. As a result, it is more difficult to migrate to another provider.
  • Examples: Dropbox, Microsoft 360, Skype, Google Apps

PaaS

Platform as a service, or shortly PaaS is a great option for development. This cloud computing type of service supplies you with networking, storage, servers, virtualization, operating system (OS), middleware, and runtime already operating smoothly. That gives a chance for developers to start writing code directly. When you start implementing PaaS, you are answerable for all of the data and the various apps which you are going to need. 

  • Advantages: It is easy to use due to the fact that almost everything is pre-installed. You only have to select the needed applications and start operating with them. Additionally, you are not concerned about taking care of the operating system (OS) or the infrastructure.
  • Disadvantages: A single PaaS provider may not support everything that you want. Additionally, the provider is responsible for the storage. Therefore, it could not be absolutely secured.
  • Examples: Microsoft Azure, Amazon AWS, Google Cloud, Heroku

IaaS

Infrastructure as a Service, or shortly IaaS, is going to provide you with an open canvas. The provider of this service is accountable for taking care of the infrastructure, meaning networking, storage, servers, and virtualization. The customer is left to take care of the middleware, runtime, data, operating system (OS), and apps.

It is a perfect opportunity when you want to go to the cloud and leave behind the on-premise server.

  • Advantages: It is a way cheaper option compared to a local server. Additionally, any infrastructural issues are not your concern.
  • Disadvantages: You still have to maintain the system and the software.
  • Examples: Rackspace, Amazon AWS, Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud

Conclusion

These three types of cloud computing, SaaS, PaaS, IaaS, are really great. Make sure to choose the type of service which is going to suit your needs the most. 

Email forwarding: Why should you use it?

Email forwarding is a very useful tool for your business. This is a quick and straightforward method to automatically redirect all emails that are going to a particular mailbox. What is the process behind it, and how useful it may be we will see in today’s article.

What is email forwarding, and how does it work?

Many DNS providers offer email forwarding, which allows you to transfer traffic from one email address to another at the domain level (without the need for a particular software). Furthermore, it differs from an email user who forwards a message to another person or the email forwarding feature of Gmail and Outlook. If you are the domain name administrator, you can redirect incoming emails from one of the domain name’s email addresses to an individual email address. For example, you can forward any email to your Gmail, Hotmail, or other email address (emailname@gmail.com) using your personal mail address (emailname@domain.net).

What are the benefits of using it?

There are many advantages to using this method, one of them are as follows:

  1. Merge email traffic from several inboxes into a single inbox. That way, you’ll have all of your emails in one location and be able to manage things more easily. It could be helpful if you have many businesses and want to access all of your emails in one place.
  2. There is no software associated with email forwarding. As a result, you can use the software you want without any issues. The email forwarding will continue to function.
  3. Redirect traffic from an email address on your domain that you don’t own to the one you do. Consider the following scenario: an employee has left the firm, but others are still attempting to contact them via email, and you don’t know the password. You can now divert traffic and get it in a different inbox.
  4. It’s beneficial if you want an email account with a public domain. Rather than using a shared email provider like Google’s Gmail, most business people use email accounts with their domain names. The goal is to project a professional image and earn their clients’ trust. 

The difference between email forwarding addresses and regular email addresses

Because they are different services, their addresses are also separate.

  • A traditional or regular email address has its own inbox, which you may use to send, receive, and read your messages. You can open your inbox through the web or with an email provider (like Gmail).
  • Incoming messages are directly transferred to another email when you use a forwarding email address. So, you can access your email through the inbox of the other account.

To summarize, regular email provides a well-known inbox for sending, receiving, and other types of messages. So, the email forwarding does not work in this manner, nor does it save messages. Instead, it will automatically forward all mails from one address to another that you specify. Therefore, it is not possible to use the same email address for both services at the same time.

What is the best place to get email forwarding?

The majority of the time, the email forwarding is a paid service. Domain name hosting providers offer this service. That is, you should look into DNS service companies to see if they offer this feature. Often it’s part of their paid plans, and there are set quotas, but in rare cases, you can find limited email forwarding on free DNS plans.

Conclusion

We can infer that еmail forwarding is a very cost-effective alternative for your company’s success! In several cases, it is definitely an advantage to avoid losing contacts that mean money for your business. So why not give it a shot? Consider it the next step in your company’s strategy.

Why should you implement Dynamic DNS?

Many of you came to this article because you want to make available a particular service from your home or office on the Internet. Dynamic DNS will serve you this purpose! It is easy to implement, and it will save you money, and it could even be free if you don’t require a lot of resources. Do you want to learn more? 

What is Dynamic DNS?

Dynamic DNS (DDNS) is a DNS service that allows you to create a hostname for a device and link it to its IP address. It is a simple A or AAAA record so far. The Dynamic part comes from the fact that you can set up your router to report changes in this device’s IP address and send an update message to the DNS server where the link was made. There the hostname’s IP address will be updated. It is a way to automatically update the IP address of a device and provide availability with the need of human effort. You can set up the Dynamic DNS and be sure that the service you are running will be available. 

If you are not using this DNS service and want to use a device to provide a service, you could have the following problem. The Internet Service Provider (ISP) that you are using will eventually update your IP address using a dynamic method like DHCP. As a result, you will get a new IP address, and all the clients need to get it to reconnect. Unfortunately, if you are not near the device, you might not know the new IP address and experience long downtime. 

You can also pay for a static IP address and provide service from your device without worrying that the IP address will change. In this case, there are two problems. First, it cost more than a Dynamic DNS. Second, if your IP address is always the same, hackers could easily target your device. They will know it and try everything to exploit it in different ways. Not a good scenario. What do you think?

Why should you implement Dynamic DNS?

The main reason is very simple – Dynamic DNS is the cheaper option to make something available online. Yes, you can get static IP addresses for each of the connected devices that you want available, but how much will this cost? The IPv4 addresses are getting very scarce and quite expensive. So, if you are wondering, even if you pay for a DNS service plan, it will still be a lot cheaper than paying for static IP addresses. 

The second important point is that it is relatively easy to use. Setting up Dynamic DNS is like setting anything on your router. You go to the setting and input what is needed. On the other side – the DNS, it is also very quick and straightforward to create an account on a DNS site, and later, create a new host. 

So, basically, Dynamic DNS is an economical and easy-to-use alternative to the paid static IP addresses. 

Conclusion

You have just learned what is Dynamic DNS and what are its most important advantages, compared to static IP addresses for your host. Should you use it? In most cases, using it will save you money and will work fine, so definitely consider it. The only concern is that the Dynamic DNS is only good as the DNS provider. If you can’t afford downtime, think well, which DNS provider you should choose. 

​What is FTP used for?

Many of you might be too young to remember, but using FTP was a common way to download files back in the 90s. FTP servers were data sources, and you could download files with an FTP client application. Yes, the FTP protocol is “ancient”, but it is still around. Do you want to learn more about it? 

​What is FTP?

FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is one of the standard communication protocols that have the purpose of transferring files from a server (FTP server) to a client (FTP client). As you can see, it uses a client-server model of communication. The client needs permission to establish a connection. That could be a login (user name and password), or the FTP server could be public and open for everybody without authentication. 

There are improved versions of the File Transfer Protocol for additional security called FTPS and SFTP. 

  • FTPS (File Transfer Protocol Secure). This one uses TLS/SSL for data encryption and boosts security. It uses two channels of communication – control and data. 
  • SFTP (SSH File Transfer Protocol). It uses SSH for encryption and needs just a single connection. The typical FTP uses one for control and a second for data. 

There are active and passive modes:

  • Active. The client uses TCP to establish a connection with the server’s port 21 (FTP). In this case, the client will be waiting (listening) for signals from the FTP server. It will send messages to the PORT M of that server to indicate it is pending. The server will establish a connection on port 20 (data). 
  • Passive. The client uses TCP to establish a connection with the server’s port 21 (FTP). In this case, the client sends the control message PASV. The server responds with its IP address and port for the connection. Then the client will start the connection. 

As I mention, it is old. It was published in 1971! With time, the protocol has been updated many times, and now it can work with TCP/IP tool. 

Today, many new browsers like Google Chrome, Safari, Firefox, and more are already removing the support of this protocol, but you can still use it with some of this software. 

  • For servers – FileZilla Server, SolarWinds, Serv-U. 
  • For clients – FileZilla, WinSCP, SmartFTP. 

​What is it used for?

  • FTP is used for transferring files. It is useful for transferring large files because it can be interrupted and still recover the transfer process. For example, imagine if the Internet stops, you can still press the resume button and continue from where you left when the Internet gets back.
  • A good feature that it has is that you can send not one but multiple directories with different files at the same time. That way, you can boost the speed of the transfer compared to file-by-file sending. 
  • The File Transfer Protocol is also used for backing up. Why? Because you can schedule transfers. You can set a script to create a single large file and schedule a transfer to your backup location. The automation really helps!
  • Uploading large files is also possible with FTP. Do you know how emails let you upload just a few MB files? With the File Transfer Protocol, you can send 4k videos without problems. 

​Conclusion.

Now it is clear for you what FTP is and what its purpose is. The modern versions FTPS and SFTP are still used to transfer files between a server and a client. The original FTP might not be supported on most modern computers, but the SFTP could still live for some years. 

6 most common HTTP error codes

HTTP error codes messages can be annoying, but they must be read carefully! They provide valuable clues to know the type of issue you are facing. 

These are the 6 most common HTTP error codes you can find!

Error 401, “Unauthorized”

HTTP error 401 expresses the server got an unauthenticated request. The requested resource couldn’t be loaded due to invalid credentials or lack of them.

Causes can vary. A plugin bug or incompatibility, an outdated link, an incorrect URL, or outdated browser cache and cookies could be blocking a successful authorization to access the resource. And without it, the server will discard the request.

Error 404, “Not found”

The 404 HTTP error code says the server couldn’t find the requested resource. The code doesn’t provide further details about the resource, like if it’s temporarily gone or permanently. 

There are different reasons for a resource not to be found. It’s a web page that doesn’t exist anymore due to prior deletion. There’s a broken link or a link incorrectly placed that’s not directing as it must. Actually, dead or broken links frequently cause this error. An exhaustive checking will be required to find and fix the problem.

Error 410, “Gone”

This HTTP error 410 points out the requested resource is permanently gone. The webpage is not available, and there’s no other URL or redirection way to reach it. Causes are different, but broken external links are commonly the guilty ones. Adding links that drive users to other sites is useful to support or go deeper into a topic. But since they are external, they can be deleted anytime, and their link will send users to a gone resource. When search engines read this error, they de-index the page. If the resource truly exists, but there’s a mistake, not fixing it fast will affect your traffic.

Error 500, “Internal server error”

HTTP error 500 reports the server is experiencing a problem. Due to this, the request can’t be completed.

Many different problems can cause internal server errors. Third-party plugins conflicts, scripting language bugs, lack of connection with the database, you name it! Downtime is by itself a big issue that must be diagnosed and fixed fast! Besides, since all these issues can be prevented through regular maintenance, search engines read this error 500 as a badly maintained site. 

Error 502, “Bad gateway”

Different scenarios can cause the error 502 message to be displayed. For example, a server got a not valid answer from another server. Also, if answering a request takes more time than usual for the server, it will cancel it, and as a result, the communication with the database will be broken. Therefore, problems between servers totally deserve attention and to be fixed.

New websites can experience error 502 when their DNS data haven’t been completely propagated. Just in this case, the solution for the error is simply to wait. The propagation has to be completed, and the problem will be gone.

Error 503, “Service unavailable”

HTTP error 503 says that the server is down. The code doesn’t explain the cause, type of failure, or temporary or permanent. It just tells users, other machines, and search engines to try later. In any case, this must be checked as soon as possible not to lose traffic.

Causes can be different, regular maintenance, normal initializing process, an overload, etc.

Conclusion

HTTP error codes are useful for machines to inform the status of HTTP requests. Good knowledge about what these codes mean will make faster your diagnose and troubleshooting process.